Developed as an evolution of the mimeograph, the Risograph duplicator originated the term risography. This is a Japanese technology increasingly used by artists, designers and publishers around the world to materialize their creative works. Striking characteristics of the printed results are its own vibrant colors, in addition to the textures obtained from oily ink absorbed by the paper, which gives artistic works a self-made appearance, composed of stains, nuances, layers of colors and displacements generated by overlays.
Autonomy for publishing and experimenting are the most attractive possibilities of Riso printing.
The Risograph duplicators were created in Japan in the 1980s by Riso Kagaku Corporation, as an alternative for high-speed printing medium and large scales. The target consumers were companies, offices, other private institutions or schools. This equipment, some years after its creation, was then discovered by independent artists, as a way to publish their own works. The duplicator allowed the creators of the works to reproduce them more easily by themselves, replacing manual processes, and to develop their skills from using the machine even for modifying its original function.
The pioneer in the use of riso printing for creative purposes was the Dutch group Knust, guest of this edition of Faísca. The collective acquired its first digital duplicator, of the Ricoh brand, in 1992 and, since then, the group has improved its knowledge, mastering the technique, therefore also taking the whole risography production forwards.
In the late 2000s, several specialized in Riso studios were opened around the world; a creative movement that has grown especially in the last decade. Artists or designers are the ones who usually manage these workspaces. They explore experimentation and innovation by studying and implementing modifications with this do-it-yourself way of printing with Riso.
Pages of Ko Zine “Fúria”, by Bruno Rios and Matheus Ferreira (Prumo), printed and published by Knust
These machines were designed for monochrome printing; therefore the registration of each color is done separately, which means that the paper needs to be put back in the duplicator for each desired color layer to be printed. There is also two-color Riso equipment for stencil printing (that allow the paper to come out of the machine with two colors printed per passage). Overlays can generate new colors, as well as misalignments that come from the repositioning of the paper, which are often used as part of the graphic experimentation process, as well as the stains generated by the ink density, which does not dry completely: each ‘copy’ is actually different from the next one.
Riso inks, based on soybean or rice bran oil, are non toxic, and stencil printing duplicators produce low amounts of waste, in addition to consuming little energy compared to other methods, which makes the process environmental-friendly. It is a stencil-based process, in which the ink is pushed through the perforated area of a master or stencil (sheet used as a template for creating copies) to reach the paper.